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Let espionage bring you always one step ahead of your opponents. Together with your army you will overcome your enemies and rob their resources.
You still want more? University Press of Kansas. Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 2 September This includes around 87, in the Northern Norway command Bef.
It includes all personnel in the German Army including the security units , Waffen SS, Luftwaffe ground forces and even naval coastal artillery in the East.
München: R. Das Heer — Entwicklung des organisatorischen Aufbaues. Die Blitzfeldzüge — Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution Press.
The Economic History Review. German Studies Review. Reshin, "Year of ", vol. Darmstadt , p. Lexington Books.
Almost half of TNT the main explosive filler for most kinds of ammunition or raw materials for its production came from abroad in — Tooze, Adam; Geyer, Michael eds.
The economics of the war with Nazi Germany. Cambridge University Press. II, p. Scandinavian Economic History Review.
Beyer; Stephen A. Forced Labour under Third Reich. Nathan Associates. Journal of Contemporary History. Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 20 May Vospominaniya i razmyshleniya.
Moscow: Agenstvo pechati Novosti. Military Anecdotes. Andre Deutsch. Velikaya Otechestvennaya voyna. Moscow: Izdatelstvo politicheskoi literatury.
Baltic Defence Review. December Military Affairs. March Alfred A. Second World War. Total War. Harmandsworth, England: Penguin.
Jörgensen, Christer. Surrey: Allan. Stopped at Stalingrad. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. History of the Second World War.
London: Cassell. Blood, Tears and Folly. London: Pimlico. Marshal of Victory, Volume II. Pen and Sword Books Ltd.
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Harvard University Press. Yale University Press. Retrieved 7 March The enemy must really find completely burned and destroyed land".
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Stalin's War against Germany. New York: Orion Publishing Group, Erickson, John. For Operation Barbarossa, Germany mobilised 3,, troops of the Heer, , of the Waffen-SS  and approximately , personnel of the Luftwaffe were actively earmarked.
By July , the Wehrmacht numbered 6,, troops. Of these, 3,, were deployed in eastern Europe, , in Finland, , in Norway, , in Denmark, 1,, in western Europe, , in Italy, and , in the Balkans.
The German high water mark was just before Battle of Kursk, in early July 3,, German troops and , Finnish, Hungarian, Romanian and other countries troops.
Hitler had always intended to renege on his pact with the Soviet Union, eventually making the decision to invade in the spring of Some historians say Stalin was fearful of war with Germany, or just did not expect Germany to start a two-front war , and was reluctant to do anything to provoke Hitler.
Others say that Stalin was eager for Germany to be at war with capitalist countries. Another viewpoint is that Stalin expected war in the time when all his preparations would be complete and stubbornly refused to believe its early arrival.
British historians Alan S. Milward and M. Medlicott show that Nazi Germany—unlike Imperial Germany—was prepared for only a short-term war Blitzkrieg.
Germany had been assembling very large numbers of troops in eastern Poland and making repeated reconnaissance flights over the border; the Soviet Union responded by assembling its divisions on its western border, although the Soviet mobilisation was slower than Germany's due to the country's less dense road network.
As in the Sino-Soviet conflict on the Chinese Eastern Railway or Soviet—Japanese border conflicts , Soviet troops on the western border received a directive, signed by Marshal Semyon Timoshenko and General of the Army Georgy Zhukov , that ordered as demanded by Stalin : "do not answer to any provocations" and "do not undertake any offensive actions without specific orders" — which meant that Soviet troops could open fire only on their soil and forbade counter-attack on German soil.
The German invasion therefore caught the Soviet military and civilian leadership largely by surprise. The extent of warnings received by Stalin about a German invasion is controversial, and the claim that there was a warning that "Germany will attack on 22 June without declaration of war" has been dismissed as a "popular myth".
However, some sources quoted in the articles on Soviet spies Richard Sorge and Willi Lehmann , say they had sent warnings of an attack on 20 or 22 June, which were treated as "disinformation".
The Lucy spy ring in Switzerland also sent warnings, possibly deriving from Ultra codebreaking in Britain. Sweden had access to internal German communications through breaking the crypto used in the Siemens and Halske T52 crypto machine also known as the Geheimschreiber and informed Stalin about the forthcoming invasion well ahead of June 22, but did not reveal its sources.
Soviet intelligence was fooled by German disinformation, so sent false alarms to Moscow about a German invasion in April, May and the beginning of June.
Soviet intelligence reported that Germany would rather invade the USSR after the fall of the British Empire  or after an unacceptable ultimatum demanding German occupation of Ukraine during the German invasion of Britain.
A strategic air offensive by the United States Army Air Force and Royal Air Force played a significant part in reducing German industry and tying up German air force and air defence resources, with some bombings, such as the bombing of the eastern German city of Dresden , being done to facilitate specific Soviet operational goals.
In addition to Germany, hundreds of thousands of tons of bombs were dropped on their eastern allies of Romania and Hungary , primarily in an attempt to cripple Romanian oil production.
British and Commonwealth forces also contributed directly to the fighting on the Eastern Front through their service in the Arctic convoys and training Red Air Force pilots , as well as in the provision of early material and intelligence support.
Among other goods, Lend-Lease supplied:  : 8—9. The aid of production-line equipment and machinery were crucial and helped to maintain adequate levels of Soviet armament production during the entire war.
Of the , tons of nonferrous metals shipped,  : about , tons were aluminium. Stalin noted in , that two-thirds of Soviet heavy industry had been built with the help of the United States, and the remaining one-third, with the help from other Western nations such as Great Britain and Canada.
In the last year of war, lend-lease data show that about 5. Albert L. Weeks conclude: 'As to attempts to sum up the importance of those four-year-long shipments of Lend-Lease for the Russian victory on the Eastern Front in World War II, the jury is still out — that is, in any definitive sense of establishing exactly how crucial this aid was.
Germany's economic, scientific, research and industrial capabilities were one of the most technically advanced in the world at the time.
However, access to and control of the resources , raw materials and production capacity required to entertain long-term goals such as European control, German territorial expansion and the destruction of the USSR were limited.
Political demands necessitated the expansion of Germany's control of natural and human resources, industrial capacity and farmland beyond its borders conquered territories.
Germany's military production was tied to resources outside its area of control, a dynamic not found amongst the Allies.
During the war, as Germany acquired new territories either by direct annexation or by installing puppet governments in defeated countries , these new territories were forced to sell raw materials and agricultural products to German buyers at extremely low prices.
Two-thirds of all French trains in were used to carry goods to Germany. Overall, France made the largest contribution to the German war effort.
Romania's oil production amounted to approximately 6,, tons annually. It may also be likely that 'Swedish ore formed the raw material of four out of every ten German guns' during the Hitler era'.
The use of foreign forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
It also contributed to the mass extermination of populations in German-occupied Europe. In wartime, the German forces had brought into the Reich 6.
While German historians do not apply any specific periodisation to the conduct of operations on the Eastern Front, all Soviet and Russian historians divide the war against Germany and its allies into three periods, which are further subdivided into eight major campaigns of the Theatre of war: .
Operation Barbarossa began just before dawn on 22 June The Germans cut the wire network in all Soviet western military districts to undermine the Red Army's communications.
What shall we do? And why is your signal not in code? At on 22 June , 99 of German divisions, including fourteen panzer divisions and ten motorised, were deployed against the Soviet Union from the Baltic to the Black Sea.
They were accompanied by ten Romanian divisions, three Italian divisions, two Slovakian divisions and nine Romanian and four Hungarian brigades.
To establish air supremacy, the Luftwaffe began immediate attacks on Soviet airfields, destroying much of the forward-deployed Soviet Air Force airfield fleets consisting of largely obsolescent types before their pilots had a chance to leave the ground.
Army Group North 's objective was Leningrad via the Baltic states. Comprising the 16th and 18th Armies and the 4th Panzer Group , this formation advanced through the Baltic states, and the Russian Pskov and Novgorod regions.
Local insurgents seized the moment and controlled most of Lithuania, northern Latvia and southern Estonia prior to the arrival of the German forces.
Army Group Centre 's two panzer groups the 2nd and 3rd , advanced to the north and south of Brest-Litovsk and converged east of Minsk , followed by the 2nd , 4th , and 9th Armies.
The next objective was to cross the Dnieper river , which was accomplished by 11 July. Their next target was Smolensk , which fell on 16 July, but the fierce Soviet resistance in the Smolensk area and slowing of the Wehrmacht advance by the North and South Army Groups forced Hitler to halt a central thrust at Moscow and to divert the 3rd Panzer Group north.
Critically, Guderian 's 2nd Panzer Group was ordered to move south in a giant pincer manoeuvre with Army Group South which was advancing into Ukraine.
Army Group Centre's infantry divisions were left relatively unsupported by armour to continue their slow advance to Moscow. This decision caused a severe leadership crisis.
The German field commanders argued for an immediate offensive towards Moscow, but Hitler over-ruled them , citing the importance of Ukrainian agricultural, mining and industrial resources, as well as the massing of Soviet reserves in the Gomel area between Army Group Centre's southern flank and the bogged-down Army Group South's northern flank.
This decision, Hitler's "summer pause",  is believed to have had a severe impact on the Battle of Moscow 's outcome, by slowing down the advance on Moscow in favour of encircling large numbers of Soviet troops around Kiev.
Army Group South , with the 1st Panzer Group , the 6th , 11th and 17th Armies , was tasked with advancing through Galicia and into Ukraine.
Their progress, however, was rather slow, and they took heavy casualties in a major tank battle. The 1st Panzer Group turned away from Kiev for the moment, advancing into the Dnieper bend western Dnipropetrovsk Oblast.
When it joined up with the southern elements of Army Group South at Uman , the Group captured about , Soviet prisoners in a huge encirclement.
As the Red Army withdrew behind the Dnieper and Dvina rivers, the Soviet Stavka high command turned its attention to evacuating as much of the western regions' industry as it could.
Factories were dismantled and transported on flatcars away from the front line for re-establishment in more remote areas of the Ural Mountains , Caucasus , Central Asia and south-eastern Siberia.
Most civilians were left to make their own way east, with only industry-related workers evacuated with the equipment; much of the population was left behind to the mercy of the invading forces.
Stalin ordered the retreating Red Army to initiate a scorched-earth policy to deny the Germans and their allies basic supplies as they advanced eastward.
To carry out that order, destruction battalions were formed in front-line areas, having the authority to summarily execute any suspicious person.
The destruction battalions burned down villages, schools, and public buildings. Hitler then decided to resume the advance on Moscow, re-designating the panzer groups as panzer armies for the occasion.
North of the Arctic Circle , a German—Finnish force set out for Murmansk but could get no further than the Zapadnaya Litsa River , where they settled down.
The combined German and Romanian forces moved into the Crimea and took control of all of the peninsula by autumn except Sevastopol , which held out until 3 July On 21 November, the Wehrmacht took Rostov , the gateway to the Caucasus.
However, the German lines were over-extended and the Soviet defenders counterattacked the 1st Panzer Army's spearhead from the north, forcing them to pull out of the city and behind the Mius River ; the first significant German withdrawal of the war.
The onset of the winter freeze saw one last German lunge that opened on 15 November, when the Wehrmacht attempted to encircle Moscow.
Meanwhile, the 2nd Panzer Army failed to take Tula , the last Soviet city that stood in its way to the capital. After a meeting held in Orsha between the head of the OKH Army General Staff , General Franz Halder and the heads of three Army groups and armies, decided to push forward to Moscow since it was better, as argued by the head of Army Group Center , Field Marshal Fedor von Bock , for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength.
However, by 6 December it became clear that the Wehrmacht did not have the strength to capture Moscow, and the attack was suspended.
Marshal Shaposhnikov thus began his counter-attack , employing freshly mobilised reserves ,  as well as some well-trained Far-Eastern divisions transferred from the east following intelligence that Japan would remain neutral.
The Soviet counter-offensive during the Battle of Moscow had removed the immediate German threat to the city.
According to Zhukov , "the success of the December counter-offensive in the central strategic direction was considerable. Having suffered a major defeat the German striking forces of Army Group Centre were retreating.
The main blow was to be delivered by a double envelopment orchestrated by the Northwestern Front , the Kalinin Front and the Western Front.
The overall objective according to Zhukov was the "subsequent encirclement and destruction of the enemy's main forces in the area of Rzhev, Vyazma and Smolensk.
The 20th Army, part of the 1st Shock Army, the 22nd Tank Brigade and five ski battalions launched their attack on 10 January By 17 January, the Soviets had captured Lotoshino and Shakhovskaya.
By 20 January, the 5th and 33rd armies had captured Ruza, Dorokhovo, Mozhaisk and Vereya, while the 43rd and 49th armies were at Domanovo.
The Wehrmacht rallied, retaining a salient at Rzhev. A Soviet parachute drop by two battalions of the st Airborne Brigade and the th Airborne Regiment on 18 and 22 January was designed to "cut off enemy communications with the rear.
Mikhail Grigoryevich Yefremov 's 33rd Army aided by Gen. This force was joined by additional paratroopers of the 8th Airborne Brigade at the end of January.
However, in early February, the Germans managed to cut off this force, separating the Soviets from their main force in the rear of the Germans.
They were supplied by air until April when they were given permission to regain the Soviet main lines.
Only part of Belov's Cavalry Corps made it to safety however, while Yefremov's men fought "a losing battle. By April , the Soviet Supreme Command agreed to assume the defensive so as to "consolidate the captured ground.
To the north, the Red Army surrounded a German garrison in Demyansk , which held out with air supply for four months, and established themselves in front of Kholm , Velizh , and Velikie Luki.
Initially this made some progress; however, it was unsupported, and by June a German counterattack cut off and destroyed the army.
The intent was to pin Army Group South against the Sea of Azov , but as the winter eased the Wehrmacht counter-attacked and cut off the over-extended Soviet troops in the Second Battle of Kharkov.
Although plans were made to attack Moscow again, on 28 June , the offensive re-opened in a different direction. Army Group South took the initiative, anchoring the front with the Battle of Voronezh and then following the Don river southeastwards.
The grand plan was to secure the Don and Volga first and then drive into the Caucasus towards the oil fields , but operational considerations and Hitler's vanity made him order both objectives to be attempted simultaneously.
Rostov was recaptured on 24 July when the 1st Panzer Army joined in, and then that group drove south towards Maikop.
As part of this, Operation Shamil was executed, a plan whereby a group of Brandenburger commandos dressed up as Soviet NKVD troops to destabilise Maikop's defences and allow the 1st Panzer Army to enter the oil town with little opposition.
Meanwhile, the 6th Army was driving towards Stalingrad , for a long period unsupported by 4th Panzer Army, which had been diverted to help 1st Panzer Army cross the Don.
By the time the 4th Panzer Army had rejoined the Stalingrad offensive Soviet resistance comprising the 62nd Army under Vasily Chuikov had stiffened.
A leap across the Don brought German troops to the Volga on 23 August but for the next three months the Wehrmacht would be fighting the Battle of Stalingrad street-by-street.
At the end of August Romanian mountain troops joined the Caucasian spearhead, while the Romanian 3rd and 4th armies were redeployed from their successful task of clearing the Azov littoral.
They took up position on either side of Stalingrad to free German troops for the main offensive. Mindful of the continuing antagonism between Axis allies Romania and Hungary over Transylvania , the Romanian army in the Don bend was separated from the Hungarian 2nd army by the Italian 8th Army.
Thus, all of Hitler's allies were involved — including a Slovakian contingent with the 1st Panzer Army and a Croatian regiment attached to 6th Army.
The advance into the Caucasus bogged down, with the Germans unable to fight their way past Malgobek and to the main prize of Grozny.
Instead, they switched the direction of their advance to approach it from the south, crossing the Malka at the end of October and entering North Ossetia.
In the first week of November, on the outskirts of Ordzhonikidze , the 13th Panzer Division's spearhead was snipped off and the panzer troops had to fall back.
The offensive into Russia was over. While the German 6th and 4th Panzer Armies had been fighting their way into Stalingrad, Soviet armies had congregated on either side of the city, specifically into the Don bridgeheads , and it was from these that they struck in November In Operation Uranus started on 19 November, two Soviet fronts punched through the Romanian lines and converged at Kalach on 23 November, trapping , Axis troops behind them.
The Germans rushed to transfer troops to the Soviet Union in a desperate attempt to relieve Stalingrad, but the offensive could not get going until 12 December, by which time the 6th Army in Stalingrad was starving and too weak to break out towards it.
To divert the rescue attempt, the Red Army decided to smash the Italians and come down behind the relief attempt if they could; that operation starting on 16 December.
What it did accomplish was to destroy many of the aircraft that had been transporting relief supplies to Stalingrad. The fairly limited scope of the Soviet offensive, although still eventually targeted on Rostov, also allowed Hitler time to see sense and pull Army Group A out of the Caucasus and back over the Don.
On 31 January , the 90, survivors of the ,man 6th Army surrendered. By that time the Hungarian 2nd Army had also been wiped out. To save the position in the south, the Germans decided to abandon the Rzhev salient in February, freeing enough troops to make a successful riposte in eastern Ukraine.
Manstein 's counteroffensive, strengthened by a specially trained SS Panzer Corps equipped with Tiger tanks , opened on 20 February and fought its way from Poltava back into Kharkov in the third week of March, when the spring thaw intervened.
This left a glaring Soviet bulge salient in the front centered on Kursk. After the failure of the attempt to capture Stalingrad, Hitler had delegated planning authority for the upcoming campaign season to the German Army High Command and reinstated Heinz Guderian to a prominent role, this time as Inspector of Panzer Troops.
Debate among the General Staff was polarised, with even Hitler nervous about any attempt to pinch off the Kursk salient.
He knew that in the intervening six months the Soviet position at Kursk had been reinforced heavily with anti-tank guns, tank traps , landmines , barbed wire , trenches , pillboxes , artillery and mortars.
Build your base and upgrade it constantly. Manage your resources and invest them carefully. Train your soldiers to be an elite troop in the barracks.
The Guardian. September 3, That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states.
Stephens Vice President of the Confederate States , March 21, , Savannah, Georgia Archived November 17, , at the Wayback Machine : "Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery—subordination to the superior race—is his natural and normal condition.
Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation". Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved Full text of both, with commentary by professor A.
Saito The U. National Archives and Records Administration. August 7, Archived from the original press release on October 4, Retrieved October 3, Majority opinion.
Loving v. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations. Harvard University Press. The questions deal with most of the major racial issues that became focal in the middle of the twentieth century: integration of public accommodations, school integration, residential integration, and job discrimination [and] racial intermarriage and willingness to vote for a black presidential candidate.
The figure shows that there ha been a massive and continuing movement of the American public from overwhelming acceptance of the principle of segregated schooling in the early s toward acceptance of the principle of integrated schooling.
Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Selected Readings. Pine Forge Press. In only 42 percent of a national sample of whites reported that they believed blacks to be equal to whites in innate intelligence; since the late s, however, around 80 percent of white Americans have rejected the idea of inherent black inferiority.
New Left Review. Guilford Publications. Bring the war home: The white power movement and paramilitary America. The white power movement that emerged from the Vietnam era shared some common attributes with earlier racist movements in the United States, but it was no mere echo.
Unlike previous iterations of the Ku Klux Klan and white supremacist vigilantism, the white power movement did not claim to serve the state.
Instead, white power made the state its target, declaring war against the federal government in The Nation.
Retrieved August 11, PBS NewsHour. New Left Review : New York: Random House. Dec 1, December 13, Christopher, Land, Roderic R.
OCLC Social and Economic Studies. ISSN Carter Godwin The mis-education of the Negro. Internet Archive. Trenton, N.
The Social Studies. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. The Journal of Negro Education. Reclaiming the multicultural roots of U.
New York. Native American boarding schools. Santa Barbara: Greenwood. Eric M. February 6, Griffith's 'The Birth of a Nation ' ".
The Moving Arts Film Journal.